Economic stability, the improvement of labor conditions, and the control of Communists were the chief aims of the administration of Gabriel González Videla, who was elected president in 1946. Chile is rich in many kinds of minerals. Chile’s principal trading partners are Japan (accounting for 11.2 percent of its exports and 3.7 percent of its imports), the Federal Republic of Germany (14.4 percent and 7.1 percent), the USA (8.8 percent and 29.2 percent), Great Britain (8.2 percent and 2.8 percent), Argentina (6.8 percent and 17 percent, in 1974), Brazil (5.8 percent and 4.3 percent), Italy (6.5 percent of exports), and Ecuador (4 percent of imports). For a while, the promise seemed to be working. The country’s ancient musical culture has been preserved by the descendants of the Chilean aborigines, primarily the Araucanians, who have a remarkable variety of songs and dances, both solo and group. Infant mortality was 63.3 per 1,000 live births. The city is the political and administrative center of Chile. The Alessandri government (1958–64) pursued a policy of involving the country in the plots of foreign capitalists and suppressing the labor movement. The constitution guaranteed bourgeois liberties and placed all executive power in the hands of O’Higgins, the supreme ruler. In 2005, the constitution was amended to reduce the national influence of the military and reassert civilian control over it, eliminating some of the vestiges of Pinochet's dictatorship that had been preserved in the document, though the method of election to the Chilean Congress remained structured to guarantee significant minority, generally conservative, representation. In 1974, Chile’s exports totaled $2.481 billion and its imports, $1.910 billion. Rivers and lakes. Learn. Chile's industries largely process its raw materials and manufacture various consumer goods. Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ What is the capital of Chile? After World War II manufacturing expanded rapidly, notably ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, chemicals, metalworking, and the paper and pulp industry. What is the capital of Chile? In 1975 the country was struck by a severe economic crisis. During the first half of the 20th century two main schools of composition emerged. Press alt + / to open this menu. In the mid-10th century the Spaniards founded several towns, among them Santiago (1541), Concepción (1550), and Valdivia (1552). Although the copper mines are still owned by the state, they are worked and managed by US monopolies. Social conditions were also depicted critically by D. Barros Grez (1834–1904) and L. Orrego Luco (1886–1948), whose novel The Big House (1908) showed the degeneration of the landowning aristocracy. The political struggle of the late 1960’s was reflected in such progressive films as The Jackal of Nahueltoro (1969, directed by M. Littin) and Three Sad Tigers (1968, directed by R. Ruiz). In the 1977–78 school year the primary schools had an enrollment of 2.2 million pupils, and in the 1977–78 school year the various secondary schools were attended by more than 487,200 students. Under the constitution adopted in 1818, a republican form of government was established. With the expansion of crafts and industry, chiefly mining, the number of workers increased. In 1975 the livestock numbered 3.6 million head of cattle, 5.9 million sheep, 800,000 goats, and 900,000 pigs. Compared to 1970 figures, the enrollment in primary schools rose by 13.5 percent, in general-education secondary schools by 33.7 percent, in vocational-technical schools by 51.9 percent, in higher educational institutions by 82.4 percent, and in the adult education system by 96.8 percent. After independence (1818), the relative stability of Chile’s political life made it a haven for literary men from other Latin American countries. Under the Unidad Popular government amateur theater groups were organized by professional actors. Chile stretches from north to south for a distance of 4,300 km, forming a narrow band 15 to 355 km wide between the Pacific coast and the high Andes Mountains. An outstanding example of such a work is A. Skarmeta’s novel I Dreamed of Burning Snow (1975). In 1980, Chile had about 100 daily newspapers. It houses numerous regional headquarters of multinational corporations. Service sectors in the city include a stock exchange, financial sectors, banks and insurance companies. Although all of S Chile is forested, only the drier northern part has exploitable timber resources; Puerto MonttPuerto Montt, city (1992 pop. The most popular songs and song-and-dance forms are the tonada, the zamacueca (commonly called the cueca), and the cuando, performed to the accompaniment of a guitar, a harp, or a guitarrón. Many writers who have emigrated are re-creating in their fictional works the tragic events of recent history. In the 1958 presidential elections the FRAP candidate, the Socialist S. Allende Gossens, received only 30,000 votes less than the candidate of the right-wing forces and the puppet of big capital, J. Alessandri. Radio broadcasting was begun in the 1920’s. ValdiviaValdivia,city (1990 est. One of the most influential Santiago dailies is El Mercurio, founded in 1900 and having a circulation of 300,000. In Sept., 1973, with covert American support, the armed forces staged a coup during which Allende died by his own hand; it also led to the execution, detention, or expulsion from Chile of thousands of people. 5 Answers. Sulfur deposits, volcanic in origin, are found at El Tacora, Concola, and other places along the Bolivian and Argentine border. Founder of constitutional order and of the conservative regime in Chile, he was general minister (1830–31) and minister of war and marine (1831–32, 1835–37)...... Click the link for more information. The leading exponent of critical realism, A. Blest Gana (1830–1920), won renown for his cycle of novels entitled Human Comedy of Chile, portraying Chilean society at mid-century. It was a founding member of the Union of South American Nations and the United Nations. 2,770), 66 sq mi (171 sq km), in the South Pacific, c.2,200 mi (3,540 km) W of Chile, to which it belongs...... Click the link for more information. Excavations have unearthed metal ornaments and painted figural pottery adorned with animal representations and geometric designs. Other major ports are Talcahuano and Chañaral. Chile was the victor and added valuable territories taken from Bolivia and Peru; a long-standing quarrel also ensued, the Tacna-Arica ControversyTacna-Arica Controversy, 1883–1929, dispute between Chile and Peru. are the chief population centers. Email or Phone: Password: Forgot account? The transport system is well developed with roads and highways connecting Santiago with other towns and ports like San Antonia which lies to the west and Valparaiso located to the northwest. Between the Andes and the Coast Ranges is the Vale of Chile, a long valley divided into basins by Andean spurs. All these parties now operate under illegal conditions. Most of the country’s llamas and alpacas are raised in the provinces of Arica and Iquique. 306,464), capital of Biobío region, S central Chile, near the mouth of the Biobío River. The western slopes of the Andes receive as much as 3,000–7,000 mm annually, brought by cyclones and westerly winds. Upon completing the compulsory eight-year primary school, students may enroll in a four-year general-education secondary school, a four-year vocational-technical school, or a four-year teacher-training school. In South Chile there are pudu and guemal deer, skunks, otters, nutrias, and culpeo foxes, as well as many birds. Santiago. In September 1973 the popular government was overthrown by a military revolt planned by domestic and foreign reactionaries. The executive and judicial of Chile have offices in Santiago. Chile. In the 20th century much attention has been given to town planning, particularly the rebuilding of the center of Santiago, and to adapting the traditions of folk architecture. Livestock raising, extensive rather than intensive, is carried on throughout the country. , a member of the Christian Democratic party who headed a coalition of 17 center and left parties, was elected president by popular vote. However, with the onset of the cold war, unleashed by US reactionary circles, González Videla in 1947 expelled the Communists from his government and broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR, established in 1944. Fascinating with its modern and natural structure, the city excites tourists with its places to visit from cathedrals to squares and museums. During the long colonial era, the mestizos became a tenant farmer class, called inquilinos; although technically free, most were in practice bound to the soil. It is Chile's lone landlocked administrative region, and it is recognized as the nation's administrative and commercial hub. N Chile, the economic mainstay of the nation, is rich in a variety of minerals, including copper, nitrates, iron, manganese, molybdenum, gold, and silver. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/capital+of+Chile. Currency: peso. info)), is a country in western South America. From the 1920’s poetry emerged as the leading genre. In 1951, M. Solari staged the first national ballet, Orrego Salas’ The Threshold of a Dream, which incorporated folk music. Allende, in an attempt to turn Chile into a socialist state, nationalized many private companies, instituted programs of land reform, and, in foreign affairs, sought closer ties with Communist countries. The capital of Chile is: Santiago When researching the capital of Chile, we looked for where the country's government is governing from and also what city the officials in Chile have pronounced as their capital. In the 1964 presidential election (in which Eduardo Frei MontalvaFrei Montalva, Eduardo Nicanor, 1911–82, president of Chile (1964–70). Founded in 1552, it was a fortress in the defense against the Araucanians and was a royalist center during the war of..... Click the link for more information. Under pressure from the reactionary forces, O’Higgins resigned and emigrated. One of Chile's largest copper mines (El Teniente) is nearby...... Click the link for more information. At an elevation of 10,435 ft (3,181 m), the location is the site of the world's largest copper mines. Meanwhile, internal struggles between the executive and legislative branches of the government intensified and resulted (1891) in the overthrow of José BalmacedaBalmaceda, José, 1840–91, president of Chile (1886–91). The northern provinces average two to three persons per sq km. The chief trading partners are the United States, China, Brazil, Argentina, and South Korea. The oldest part of Santiago is the Historic Center located between the Mapocho Ri… Only the lower reaches of the rivers in the southern part of Central Chile and the large lakes are navigable. Of great importance for the subsequent development of the country’s theater was the activity of the National Drama Company (founded 1913) and the Báguena-Bührle Troupe (formed 1917), which attracted the outstanding actors and directors A. Biihrle, L. Cordoba, A. Flores, and R. Frontaura. Addressing the first gathering of the Literary Society of Chile in 1842, the public figure, scholar, and prose writer J. V. Lastarria (1817–88) defined the task of creating a national literature. Some 220,000 homes were destroyed, and the wine and fishing industries were particularly affected by the earthquake. Moreover, the state owned 85 percent of the rail network, as well as most of the air and maritime transport facilities. However, along the coast of N Chile high humidity and dense fogs modify the desert climate. Among its finest productions were Tender Youth by L. Bernstein (choreographer C. Reyes), Don Juan by Gluck (choreographer R. Adam), Can-Can, based on music by J. Offenbach (choreographer Hermannsen), and Chopiniana, based on music by F. Chopin (choreographer M. Fokine, revised by Cintolesi). Complete the conversation that Eric is having with his Spanish teacher at school in the evening class. The military junta that seized power has ruthlessly persecuted the country’s progressive cultural figures. 2) What is the highest mountain in Britain? About 500 such groups, composed of workers, peasants, and students, put on productions in schools, factory trade union centers, and rural settlements. Films were made that have become part of the golden treasury of Latin-American cinema: Comrade President (1970, directed by Littin), Oath and Gun (1971, directed by H. Soto), Witnesses (1971, directed by C. Elsesser), The Benefactor (1973, directed by B. Gebel), and The Promised Land (1973, directed by Littin). mi. The transport system in the country includes the Valparaiso Metro, a rapid transit system, and the public transport provides many buses, funiculars, and trolleybuses. The new National Health Service, introduced in 1975, has reduced the number of people eligible to receive state medical care. The poetry of S. Sanfuentes (1817–60) and E. Lillo (1826–1910) and the plays of C. Bello developed within the mainstream of romanticism. The rest of the region is a wilderness of midlatitude rain forest, which has been extensively logged. Drama groups were also formed at the Catholic University of Chile (1943) and at the university in Concepción. (the chief link between Bolivia and the Pacific), the mining towns of Calama and Coplapó, and the industrial town of La SerenaLa Serena, city (1990 est. Livestock raising developed, and artisan workshops and manufacturers (seeMANUFACTURE) were established. Write. Measures were adopted to raise the living conditions of workers and office employees, to improve the pension system, and to stimulate housing construction. The European immigration to Valparaiso in 1848–1914 left a unique imprint on Valparaiso architecture. To prevent competition with the motherland, however, the Spanish authorities restrained the development of Chile’s economy. Population, 10.45 million (1976). A law enacted in 1974 gave foreign monopolies the right to import capital and transfer profits abroad without any restrictions. The junta is militarizing the economy and strengthening the country’s ties with the imperialist states. d’Halmar (1882–1950), best known for his novel Juana Lucero (1902), and J. Edwards Bello (1877?–1968)—were attracted to the aesthetics of naturalism. After Uthoff, who retained his post until 1965, the company was directed by D. Carey, V. Roncal, and P. Bunster. A mutiny in the navy in 1931 was followed in June 1932 by a military coup led by Colonel M. Grove Vallejo, who proclaimed Chile a “socialist republic.” Councils of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies were formed in a number of cities. A lawyer and editor, he was a founder (1938) of the National Falange, an independent party based on progressive Christian principles, which in 1957 became the core of the new Christian Democratic..... Click the link for more information. (1851–61) the country experienced governmental reform and material progress. Officers are trained at various military schools, in three academies (one for each branch of the armed forces), and at a military polytechnical academy. During the War of Independence of the Spanish-American Colonies (1810–26), when publicistic writing became the leading genre, the journalist C. Henriquez (1769–1825) founded the first Chilean newspaper, Aurora de Chile. The liberation army was defeated by Spanish troops, and after the battle of Rancagua (October 1814) the patriots had to flee to Argentina. A lawyer and economist, he was an academic and served as secretary-general of the Univ. The rivers of Chile are generally short and swift-flowing, rising in the well-watered Andean highlands and flowing generally west to the Pacific Ocean; the Loa and Baker rivers are the longest, but those in the central portion of the country are much more important because of their use for irrigation and power production. 9 years ago. Agriculture. However, under the military-drafted constitution, Pinochet remained head of the army. During the 1950’s, the Chilean dancers V. Roncal, Bunster, O. Cintolesi, H. Baldrich, and Solari studied in Europe. The main economic activities are livestock raising for meat and milk and the cultivation of grain crops. E. N. LUKASHOVA (physical geography) and V. D. CHEKHOVICH (geological structure and mineral resources). In Oct., 1988, the electorate voted against the extension of Pinochet's term to 1997. pop. Territorial limits were ill-defined and were the cause, after independence, of long-drawn-out boundary disputes with Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. The average life expectancy was 62.6 years. Largest Cities in Chile There are no cities in Chile with a population of more than 1 million, although a few come close, and some are much larger when the entire metropolitan area is considered. By 1976 about 20 percent of the work force was unemployed. It is the chief port of Chile and the terminus of a trans-Andean railroad...... Click the link for more information. (756,945 sq. By September 1973 more than 500 state-owned or state-controlled enterprises were providing about 50 percent of the total industrial output. The food-processing, textile, and leather-footwear branches account for two-thirds of the employees and three-fifths of the output, by value, of the manufacturing industry. The junta suspended the constitution, dissolved the National Congress, and banned all political parties and mass organizations. In December 1969 the Communist, Socialist, Social Democratic, and Radical parties, the Movement for United Popular Action (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action formed the coalition known as Unidad Popular (Popular Unity), which on the eve of the 1970 presidential elections put forward a program of radical social and economic change. Some of its 32 municipalities are very affluent and some are very poor. See A. U. Hancock, A History of Chile (1893, repr. Another fine novel, Prize Horse (1957) by F. Alegría (born 1918), portrays a man’s search for his identity in a hostile bourgeois society. In 1540, Pedro de ValdiviaValdivia, Pedro de, c.1500–1554, Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Chile. From the outset two trends coexisted in the Chilean ballet—the expressionist, including modern dance, and the classical, whose leading exponent was Solari. There are three distinct north-south belts: the Principal Cordillera of the Andes in the east, the Coastal Cordillera in the west, and the intermontane depression known as the Longitudinal Valley. All this provoked discontent among the masses and strengthened the influence of the Communist Party and the FRAP. Log In. The trouble began when President Hilarión Daza of Bolivia rescinded (Feb...... Click the link for more information. He was chosen in 1813 to replace José Miguel Carrera as revolutionary leader...... Click the link for more information. Several industrial firms have their own research departments. Gravity. O’Higgins’ struggle against the privileges of the landed oligarchy and the Catholic Church, along with his efforts to implement progressive reforms and restrict the church’s influence, provoked dissatisfaction among the feudal-clerical circles. Food-processing enterprises, found in almost all cities, are especially numerous in Santiago, Valparaiso, and Valdivia. Among swine, erysipelas, hog cholera and infectious atrophic rhinitis have been recorded; among poultry, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, mycoplasmosis, Marek’s disease, pullorosis, leukosis, and fowl cholera and pox; among sheep, infectious enterotoxemia, ecthyma contagiosum, and mange; among rabbits, myxomatosis and coccidiosis; and among horses, strangles, horse influenza, and lymphagitis ulce rosa pseudofarcinosa. The government revived diplomatic relations with Cuba and established diplomatic relations with other socialist countries. Temperatures are relatively low and even, varying from 3°–5° to 8°–14°C. was elected) and in the 1965 congressional elections, the Christian Democratic party won overwhelming victories over the Socialist-Communist coalition. Upgrade to remove ads. The victory made possible his liberating expedition to Peru...... Click the link for more information. Antofagasta was founded by Chileans in 1870 to exploit nitrates in the Atacama Desert, then under Bolivian administration...... Click the link for more information. Veterinary specialists are trained at the veterinary faculty of the University of Chile and at the veterinary school of the private Southern University of Chile. The Allende government introduced far-reaching anti-imperialist and anti-oligarchic reforms; copper mines belonging to US monopolies were nationalized, restrictions were placed on the activity of the Chilean industrial, landowning, and financial oligarchy, and an agrarian reform was carried out that effectively abolished the latifundia system. Since about 1950 the principles of modern architecture have been employed by the architects S. Larrain, E. Duhart, R. Dávila, and J. Martinez in designing large industrial and public complexes, high-rise buildings, and residential districts on the outskirts of Santiago, Arica, and other cities. American films again filled the country’s screens. In 1693 the comedy A Chilean Hercules by an unknown Chilean author was presented in Santiago during a festival. Translate The capital of chile is santiago. A film institute established in 1957 by the University of Chile in Santiago produced documentaries. pop. It is a multiparty democracy with a directly elected president who serves a four-year term (six-year prior to the constitutional amendments of 2005). A philharmonic society was founded in Santiago in 1827, and a music school was opened there in 1849, becoming a conservatory in 1851. The 18th and early 19th centuries saw the construction of town houses with inner courtyards, portals, and grillwork. When a Chilean ballet company was formed in 1945, Uthoff was appointed its artistic director. The birth of Chile’s national cinema dates from 1902, when an anonymous cameraman filmed a fire being put out in Valparaiso. On the eastern plains are found steppes with chernozem-like chestnut soils, and the extreme south is covered with meadows and peat bogs. Along with religious productions, Spanish theatrical companies and local amateurs staged plays by Spanish playwrights. In 1977 only 23 industrial enterprises remained under state management. His efforts, as well as those of his successors, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (1952–58) and Jorge Alessandri (1958–64), were hampered by chronic inflation and repeated labor crises. The military violence of the Pinochet era remains an incompletely resolved issue in Chilean society. An experimental motion-picture center and a film library were founded in 1960. Some 90 percent of all foreign trade cargo is handled by maritime shipping. The presidential election in 2017 resulted in a second term for Piñera, who easily defeated the center-left candidate Alejandro Guillier in the runoff. Fishing and lumbering are also important economic activities. The intimate lyrics and subjective verse of Residence on Earth (vols. STUDY. Log in Sign up. Fauna. In the Longitudinal Valley, with its pockets of vertisols (dark soils with faint horizonation), the natural vegetation has not survived. In October 1932, Alessandri returned to power and pursued a policy of strengthening the position of foreign capital. The leading playwright of the second half of the 19th century was D. Barros Grez, whose best works include As in Santiago (1875), Birds of a Feather Flock Together (1879), Almost a Wedding (1881), and Rehearsal of a Comedy (1889). It is a commercial city dealing in cattle, lumber, wheat, and fruit...... Click the link for more information. Textiles are manufactured in Valparaiso, Santiago, and Concepción and leather footwear in Valparaiso and Santiago. 276,737), capital of Valparaiso region, central Chile. South of 39° S lat. (1970, directed by A. Francia), and Araucana (1971, directed by J. Coll), a joint production with Spain and Italy. Create. The creóle bourgeoisie, demanding greater liberty, began to oppose colonial domination. Precipitation increases southward; the desert in the north is practically rainless, while S Chile receives abundant precipitation throughout the year. ). 120,000), capital of Magallanes y La Antartica Chilena region, S Chile, on the Strait of Magellan, the world's southernmost major city. Marxism attracted a large following, and the first workers’ newspaper, El proletario, began publication in 1875. The city’s spirit matches the grandeur of its landscape. The chief crops are wheat, corn, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets, rice, and rape. VIII Biobío region has a population of 2,042,044, and its capital is Concepción. Among the ore deposits are the world’s largest porphyry copper deposits (Chuquicamata, El Salvador, and El Teniente), associated with a Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic-plutonic complex. The country’s independence was proclaimed on Feb. 12, 1818, and achieved after the battle of Maipú (Apr. Decorative painting and sculpture flourished, as well as portraiture and engraving (A. Santelices). Agriculture is the main occupation of about 15% of the population; it accounts for about 6% of the national wealth, and produces less than half of the domestic needs. From the 1950’s through the 1970’s the company’s soloists have included V. Roncal, Cintolesi, I. Milovan, H. Poll, J. Poldrig, E. Harli, and R. Galgillos. In the 1920’s several film companies were founded in Santiago and Valparaiso: Giambastini Films, Chile Films, and Andes Films. The company staged both expressionist and classical ballets, although showing a decided preference for the latter. About 70 percent of foreign trade operations were under state control. The outbreak of a popular uprising against Spanish colonial oppression in Santiago in July 1810 was followed by the formation of a national governing junta on September 18, subsequently celebrated as National Independence Day. SANTIAGO. Eclecticism prevailed in architecture throughout the 19th century, to be replaced in the early 20th century by the art nouveau style. The entire country is subject to frequent earthquakes. The climate, which varies from hot desert in the north through Mediterranean-type in the central portion to the cool and humid marine west coast type in the south, is influenced by the cold Peruvian (or Humboldt) Current along the coast of N Chile and by the Andes. There is a subway system and the international airports at Pudahuel and Los Cerrillos provide air services. . Show Answer. santiago de chile more commonly reffered to as simply Santiago. The struggle between radicals and conservatives led to a series of social experiments and to counterattempts to suppress the radicals (especially the Communists) by force. marched into Chile and, despite stout resistance from the Araucanians, founded Santiago (1541) and later established La Serena, Concepción, and Valdivia. Deposits of petroleum and natural gas are associated with the late Jurassic deposits of the Magallanes Foredeep (Tierra del Fuego). TheKing3. Under the leadership of D. de Almagro and P. de Valdivia the conquerors dealt cruelly with the indigenous population.